SCIENTIFIC WORK

THE SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS

If you write a bachelor thesis, master thesis, diploma thesis or even a scientific paper or seminar paper, you have to present the result of your study in a comprehensible way. Scientific statements must be verifiable. This is served by the scientific apparatus, which consists of quotes, sources and the bibliography.

Quotes and references

Give the testimony of another person, it is a quote. Proper citation means that the citation must be recognizable as such, and you must specify exactly where you got it from. As an exam candidate, you will cite no less than an established academic teacher from sources, ie texts by other authors. These may be direct quotes or indirect quotes. Scientific citation includes both literal and “only” meaningful takeovers.

In the course of your bachelor thesis, master thesis or diploma thesis, you are constantly confronted with having to prove your statements by making sources. It must be clear what your own train of thought is and what you have taken from others. This requires a sense of how, how often and what is cited or documented, as well as the formally correct implementation of citation and bibliography.

Direct quote

In the first place, you should cite succinct statements that summarize a thesis or give a scientific assessment in an original way. But one should not overburden his text with direct quotations, since otherwise the danger threatens that he acts as a mere, possibly arbitrary juxtaposition of statements of others, in which a separate reasoning is no longer recognizable. The literal quote is in double quotes:

Example:
“Modern societies can no longer base their integration solely on the solidarity networks of evolved lifeworlds”.

Scientific citation must pay attention to grammatical and syntactic correctness – especially if only individual words or subsets are included in the own sentence. A reference to the source, ie an exact indication of the reference, is indispensable for direct citation.

Indirect quote

With many statements that one wants to take from others, it is more appropriate to reproduce them in their own words. This also fits in stylistically better in your own text. You should completely refrain from quoting, if the statement has a mere commonplace content.

If you write that the fall of the wall took place in 1989, you do not need to substantiate this statement, because this information can be found in countless publications, not least in manuals or chronicles. However, if you are referring to a concrete assessment of this event or if you would like to generally refer to literature that has served to introduce or deepen your topic, you must provide the corresponding source.

In addition to quoting from books and essays, so print sources, to which up to a few years ago scientific citation almost exclusively referred, you will increasingly quote from Internet sources. Quotes from Internet sources are often unavoidable today, but they also bring their own difficulties.

Scientific citation and the bibliography


Decisive for the scientific citation are always the traceability of statements and the clear assignment of citations. This is the only way to meet the requirements of a Bachelor, Master or Diploma thesis. An indispensable counterpart to the evidence in the text is the bibliography (also called Bibliography), to which the corresponding requirements are made.

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